Flask就像Jinja2和Werkzeug那样，是完全基于Unicode的。 不只是这几个库，绝大多数的Python中网络相关的库都是这样处理文本的。 如果你对Unicode还不够了解，你可以阅读这篇文章 The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets 。 这部分文档只是希望能帮助你了解一些基础知识，这样你就可以处理一些与Unicode有关的东西了。
HTTP协议基于字节码（bytes）。 不仅是协议， 也用于标记文件在服务器位置（即URI、URL）的系统中。
However HTML which is usually transmitted on top of HTTP supports a large variety of character sets and which ones are used, are transmitted in an HTTP header. To not make this too complex Flask just assumes that if you are sending Unicode out you want it to be UTF-8 encoded. Flask will do the encoding and setting of the appropriate headers for you.
The same is true if you are talking to databases with the help of SQLAlchemy or a similar ORM system. Some databases have a protocol that already transmits Unicode and if they do not, SQLAlchemy or your other ORM should take care of that.
The Golden Rule¶
So the rule of thumb: if you are not dealing with binary data, work with Unicode. What does working with Unicode in Python 2.x mean?
- as long as you are using ASCII charpoints only (basically numbers,
some special characters of latin letters without umlauts or anything
fancy) you can use regular string literals (
- if you need anything else than ASCII in a string you have to mark
this string as Unicode string by prefixing it with a lowercase u.
u'Hänsel und Gretel')
- if you are using non-Unicode characters in your Python files you have
to tell Python which encoding your file uses. Again, I recommend
UTF-8 for this purpose. To tell the interpreter your encoding you can
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-into the first or second line of your Python source file.
- Jinja is configured to decode the template files from UTF-8. So make sure to tell your editor to save the file as UTF-8 there as well.
Encoding and Decoding Yourself¶
If you are talking with a filesystem or something that is not really based on Unicode you will have to ensure that you decode properly when working with Unicode interface. So for example if you want to load a file on the filesystem and embed it into a Jinja2 template you will have to decode it from the encoding of that file. Here the old problem that text files do not specify their encoding comes into play. So do yourself a favour and limit yourself to UTF-8 for text files as well.
Anyways. To load such a file with Unicode you can use the built-in
def read_file(filename, charset='utf-8'): with open(filename, 'r') as f: return f.read().decode(charset)
To go from Unicode into a specific charset such as UTF-8 you can use the
def write_file(filename, contents, charset='utf-8'): with open(filename, 'w') as f: f.write(contents.encode(charset))
Most editors save as UTF-8 by default nowadays but in case your editor is not configured to do this you have to change it. Here some common ways to set your editor to store as UTF-8:
set enc=utf-8to your
Emacs: either use an encoding cookie or put this into your
(prefer-coding-system 'utf-8) (setq default-buffer-file-coding-system 'utf-8)
- Go to Settings -> Preferences ...
- Select the “New Document/Default Directory” tab
- Select “UTF-8 without BOM” as encoding
It is also recommended to use the Unix newline format, you can select it in the same panel but this is not a requirement.