# 配置管理¶

## 基本配置¶

config 实际上继承于字典（dictionary）类型，所以你可以像操作任何字典那样配置它：

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config['DEBUG'] = True


app.debug = True


app.config.update(
DEBUG=True,
SECRET_KEY='...'
)


## 内置配置参数¶

 DEBUG 开启/关闭 debug 模式 TESTING 开启/关闭 测试模式 PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS 开启/关闭 异常通知 当测试或DEBUG模式开启时，不管这个值没有设定或者设定为 None ，程序都会按这个值为 True 的情况执行。 PRESERVE_CONTEXT_ON_EXCEPTION 默认情况下，在debug模式中关于异常的详细请求信息不会被显示用以方便查看细节数据。您可以利用这个配置键打开这个功能。您也可以强制使用这个配置开启在非debug模式中，这对用于生产环境的应用会很有帮助，但是也存在着非常大的风险。 SECRET_KEY 配置程序密钥 SESSION_COOKIE_NAME 配置Session Cookie的变量名 PERMANENT_SESSION_LIFETIME 配置常驻session对象（ datetime.timedelta ）的保存时长。 USE_X_SENDFILE 开启/关闭 x-sendfile LOGGER_NAME 配置logger的名字 SERVER_NAME 配置服务器的名字和端口号。用于对于子域名的支持。（例子： 'localhost:5000' ） MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH 配置最大请求内容长度。如果提交的内容的字节长度大于此值Flask将会拒绝请求，并且返回413状态码。

SERVER_NAME 值用于对于子域名的支持。因为，在没有获取真实Server Name的情况下，Flask不获取得到子域名。所以当你需要使用子域名的时候需要配置 SERVER_NAME 。这个值也会被session cookie用到。

Please keep in mind that not only Flask has the problem of not knowing what subdomains are, your web browser does as well. Most modern web browsers will not allow cross-subdomain cookies to be set on a server name without dots in it. So if your server name is 'localhost' you will not be able to set a cookie for 'localhost' and every subdomain of it. Please chose a different server name in that case, like 'myapplication.local' and add this name + the subdomains you want to use into your host config or setup a local bind.

New in version 0.4: LOGGER_NAME

New in version 0.5: SERVER_NAME

New in version 0.6: MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH

New in version 0.7: PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS, PRESERVE_CONTEXT_ON_EXCEPTION

## 使用配置文件¶

Configuration becomes more useful if you can configure from a file, and ideally that file would be outside of the actual application package so that you can install the package with distribute (Deploying with Distribute) and still modify that file afterwards.

So a common pattern is this:

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config.from_object('yourapplication.default_settings')
app.config.from_envvar('YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS')


This first loads the configuration from the yourapplication.default_settings module and then overrides the values with the contents of the file the YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS environment variable points to. This environment variable can be set on Linux or OS X with the export command in the shell before starting the server:

$export YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS=/path/to/settings.cfg$ python run-app.py
* Running on http://127.0.0.1:5000/


On Windows systems use the set builtin instead:

>set YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS=\path\to\settings.cfg


The configuration files themselves are actual Python files. Only values in uppercase are actually stored in the config object later on. So make sure to use uppercase letters for your config keys.

Here is an example configuration file:

DEBUG = False
SECRET_KEY = '?\xbf,\xb4\x8d\xa3"<\x9c\xb0@\x0f5\xab,w\xee\x8d\$0\x13\x8b83'


Make sure to load the configuration very early on so that extensions have the ability to access the configuration when starting up. There are other methods on the config object as well to load from individual files. For a complete reference, read the Config object’s documentation.

## 最佳配置实践¶

The downside with the approach mentioned earlier is that it makes testing a little harder. There is no one 100% solution for this problem in general, but there are a couple of things you can do to improve that experience:

1. create your application in a function and register blueprints on it. That way you can create multiple instances of your application with different configurations attached which makes unittesting a lot easier. You can use this to pass in configuration as needed.
2. Do not write code that needs the configuration at import time. If you limit yourself to request-only accesses to the configuration you can reconfigure the object later on as needed.

## 开发 / 产品¶

Most applications need more than one configuration. There will at least be a separate configuration for a production server and one used during development. The easiest way to handle this is to use a default configuration that is always loaded and part of version control, and a separate configuration that overrides the values as necessary as mentioned in the example above:

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config.from_object('yourapplication.default_settings')
app.config.from_envvar('YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS')


Then you just have to add a separate config.py file and export YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS=/path/to/config.py and you are done. However there are alternative ways as well. For example you could use imports or subclassing.

What is very popular in the Django world is to make the import explicit in the config file by adding an from yourapplication.default_settings import * to the top of the file and then overriding the changes by hand. You could also inspect an environment variable like YOURAPPLICATION_MODE and set that to production, development etc and import different hardcoded files based on that.

An interesting pattern is also to use classes and inheritance for configuration:

class Config(object):
DEBUG = False
TESTING = False
DATABASE_URI = 'sqlite://:memory:'

class ProductionConfig(Config):
DATABASE_URI = 'mysql://user@localhost/foo'

class DevelopmentConfig(Config):
DEBUG = True

class TestingConfig(Config):
TESTING = True


app.config.from_object('configmodule.ProductionConfig')


There are many different ways and it’s up to you how you want to manage your configuration files. However here a list of good recommendations:

• keep a default configuration in version control. Either populate the config with this default configuration or import it in your own configuration files before overriding values.
• use an environment variable to switch between the configurations. This can be done from outside the Python interpreter and makes development and deployment much easier because you can quickly and easily switch between different configs without having to touch the code at all. If you are working often on different projects you can even create your own script for sourcing that activates a virtualenv and exports the development configuration for you.
• Use a tool like fabric in production to push code and configurations separately to the production server(s). For some details about how to do that, head over to the Deploying with Fabric pattern.